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Egypt Facts and Figures from Encarta
Basic Facts
Official name Arab Republic of Egypt
Capital Cairo
Area 997,739 sq km
385,229 sq mi
Population 74,718,797 (2003 estimate)
Population growth
Population growth rate 1.88 percent (2003 estimate)
Projected population in 2025 103,352,882 (2025 estimate)
Projected population in 2050 126,920,512 (2050 estimate)
Population density 75 persons per sq km (2003 estimate)
194 persons per sq mi (2003 estimate)
Urban/rural distribution
Share urban 43 percent (2001 estimate)
Share rural 57 percent (2001 estimate)
Largest cities, with population
Cairo 6,789,000 (1998 estimate)
Giza 4,779,000 (1998 estimate)
Alexandria 3,328,000 (1998 estimate)
Port Said 469,000 (1998 estimate)
Suez 417,000 (1998 estimate)
Ethnic groups
Eastern Hamitic (Egyptians, Bedouin, and Berbers) 99 percent
Greek, Nubian, Armenian, other European 1 percent
Arabic (official); English and French widely understood by the educated
Religious affiliations
Muslim (mostly Sunni) 94 percent (official estimate)
Coptic Christian and other 6 percent (official estimate)
Health and Education
Life expectancy
Total 70.4 years (2003 estimate)
Female 73 years (2003 estimate)
Male 67.9 years (2003 estimate)
Infant mortality rate 35 deaths per 1,000 live births (2003 estimate)
Population per physician 1,573 people (1999)
Population per hospital bed 476 people (1997)
Literacy rate
Total 57.7 percent (2003 estimate)
Female 46.9 percent (2003 estimate)
Male 68.3 percent (2003 estimate)
Education expenditure as a share of gross national product (GNP) 4.1 percent (1999-2000)
Number of years of compulsory schooling 8 years (2000)
Number of students per teacher, primary school 23 students per teacher (1999-2000)
Form of government Republic
Head of state President
Head of government Prime minister
Legislature Bicameral legislature
People's Assembly: 454 members
Advisory Council: 264 members
Voting qualifications Universal and compulsory at age 18
Constitution 11 September 1971, amended in 1980
Highest court Supreme Constitutional Court
Armed forces Army, Navy, Air Force
Total number of military personnel 443,000 (2001)
Military expenditures as a share of gross domestic product (GDP) 4.7 percent (2001)
First-level political divisions 26 governorates
Gross domestic product (GDP, in U.S.$) $98 billion (2001)
GDP per capita (U.S.$) $1,510 (2001)
GDP by economic sector
Agriculture, forestry, fishing 16.8 percent (2001)
Industry 33.1 percent (2001)
Services 50.1 percent (2001)
Number of workers 25,151,781 (2001)
Workforce share of economic sector
Agriculture, forestry, fishing 30 percent (1998)
Industry 22 percent (1998)
Services 48 percent (1998)
Unemployment rate 8.2 percent (1998)
National budget (U.S.$)
Total revenue $19,869 million (1997)
Total expenditure $23,166 million (1997)
Monetary unit
1 Egyptian pound (ŁE), consisting of 100 piastres
Cotton, rice, tomatoes, wheat, maize, sugarcane, potatoes, oranges, livestock
Petroleum, natural gas, phosphate rock, iron ore, salt, uranium
Textiles, chemicals, metals, petroleum products
Major exports
Petroleum and petroleum products, textiles, vegetables and fruit, clothing and accessories, aluminum products
Major imports
Machinery and transportation equipment, basic manufactures, food products, chemicals
Major trade partners for exports
Italy, United States, France, Germany, and Netherlands
Major trade partners for imports
United States, Germany, Italy, France, and China
Energy, Communications, and Transportation
Electricity production
Electricity from thermal sources 81.03 percent (2001 estimate)
Electricity from hydroelectric sources 18.97 percent (2001 estimate)
Electricity from nuclear sources 0 percent (2001 estimate)
Electricity from geothermal, solar, and wind sources 0 percent (2001 estimate)
Number of radios per 1,000 people 317 (1997)
Number of telephones per 1,000 people 104 (2001)
Number of televisions per 1,000 people 175 (2000 estimate)
Number of Internet hosts per 10,000 people 0.28 (2001)
Daily newspaper circulation per 1,000 people 31 (1999)
Number of motor vehicles per 1,000 people 30 (1997)
Paved road as a share of total roads 78 percent (1999)
Basic Facts and People sections
Area data are from the statistical bureaus of individual countries. Population, population growth rate, and population projections are from the United States Census Bureau, International Programs Center, International Data Base (IDB) (www.census.gov). Urban and rural population data are from the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations (UN), FAOSTAT database (www.fao.org). Largest cities population data and political divisions data are from the statistical bureaus of individual countries. Ethnic divisions and religion data are largely from the latest Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) World Factbook and from various country censuses and reports. Language data are largely from the Ethnologue, Languages of the World, Summer Institute of Linguistics International (www.sil.org).
Health and Education section
Life expectancy and infant mortality data are from the United States Census Bureau, International Programs Center, International database (IDB) (www.census.gov). Population per physician and population per hospital bed data are from the World Health Organization (WHO) (www.who.int). Education data are from the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) database (www.unesco.org).
Government section
Government, independence, legislature, constitution, highest court, and voting qualifications data are largely from various government Web sites, the latest Europa World Yearbook, and the latest Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) World Factbook. The armed forces data is from Military Balance.
Economy section
Gross domestic product (GDP), GDP per capita, GDP by economic sectors, employment, and national budget data are from the World Bank database (www.worldbank.org). Monetary unit, agriculture, mining, manufacturing, exports, imports, and major trade partner information is from the latest Europa World Yearbook and various International Monetary Fund (IMF) publications.
Energy, Communication, and Transportation section
Electricity information is from the Energy Information Administration (EIA) database (www.eia.doe.gov). Radio, telephone, television, and newspaper information is from the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) database (www.unesco.org). Internet hosts, motor vehicles, and road data are from the World Bank database (www.worldbank.org).
Figures may not total 100 percent due to rounding.