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Zimbabwe Facts and Figures from Encarta
Basic Facts
Official name Republic of Zimbabwe
Capital Harare
Area 390,759 sq km
150,873 sq mi
Population 12,576,742 (2003 estimate)
Population growth
Population growth rate 0.83 percent (2003 estimate)
Projected population in 2025 12,773,413 (2025 estimate)
Projected population in 2050 14,581,288 (2050 estimate)
Population density 32 persons per sq km (2003 estimate)
83 persons per sq mi (2003 estimate)
Urban/rural distribution
Share urban 36 percent (2001 estimate)
Share rural 64 percent (2001 estimate)
Largest cities, with population
Harare 1,752,000 (2000 estimate)
Bulawayo 620,936 (1992)
Chitungwiza 274,912 (1992)
Mutare 131,367 (1992)
Gweru 128,027 (1992)
Ethnic groups
Shona 71 percent
Ndebele 16 percent
Other 13 percent
English (official), Shona, Ndebele
Religious affiliations
Syncretic (part Christian, part indigenous beliefs) 40 percent
Protestant 12 percent
Roman Catholic 10 percent
Ethnoreligionists or indigenous beliefs 30 percent
Other (including Muslim and Hindu) 8 percent
Health and Education
Life expectancy
Total 39 years (2003 estimate)
Female 37.9 years (2003 estimate)
Male 40.1 years (2003 estimate)
Infant mortality rate 66 deaths per 1,000 live births (2003 estimate)
Population per physician 8,517 people (1996)
Population per hospital bed 1,959 people (1990)
Literacy rate
Total 90.7 percent (2003 estimate)
Female 87.2 percent (2003 estimate)
Male 94.2 percent (2003 estimate)
Education expenditure as a share of gross national product (GNP) 11.1 percent (1999-2000)
Number of years of compulsory schooling 7 years (2000)
Number of students per teacher, primary school 41 students per teacher (1999-2000)
Form of government Presidential republic
Head of state President
Head of government President
Legislature Unicameral legislature
House of Assembly: 150 members
Voting qualifications Universal at age 18
Constitution 18 April 1980
Highest court Supreme Court
Armed forces Army, Air Force
Total number of military personnel 36,000 (2001)
Military expenditures as a share of gross domestic product (GDP) 2.9 percent (2001)
First-level political divisions Ten provinces
Gross domestic product (GDP, in U.S.$) $9.1 billion (2001)
GDP per capita (U.S.$) $710 (2001)
GDP by economic sector
Agriculture, forestry, fishing 17.6 percent (2001)
Industry 24.4 percent (2001)
Services 57.9 percent (2001)
Number of workers 5,947,498 (2001)
Workforce share of economic sector
Agriculture, forestry, fishing 26 percent (1994)
Industry 28 percent (1994)
Services 47 percent (1994)
Unemployment rate 6 percent (1999)
National budget (U.S.$)
Total revenue $2,478 million (1997)
Total expenditure $3,010 million (1997)
Monetary unit
1 Zimbabwe dollar (Z$), consisting of 100 cents
Tobacco, cotton, maize, sugarcane, coffee, cassava, wheat, sorghum, millet, cattle
Chromium, gold, nickel, asbestos, copper, silver, emeralds, lithium, tin, iron ore, cobalt, coal, diamonds, kyanite, platinum, zinc, lead
Food products, metals, chemicals, textiles
Major exports
Tobacco, ferrochrome, gold, nickel metal, cotton, steel, textiles
Major imports
Machinery and transportation equipment, basic manufactures, chemicals, fuels
Major trade partners for exports
South Africa, United Kingdom, Japan, Germany, and United States
Major trade partners for imports
South Africa, United Kingdom, Mozambique, United States, and Germany
Energy, Communications, and Transportation
Electricity production
Electricity from thermal sources 47.05 percent (2001 estimate)
Electricity from hydroelectric sources 52.95 percent (2001 estimate)
Electricity from nuclear sources 0 percent (2001 estimate)
Electricity from geothermal, solar, and wind sources 0 percent (2001 estimate)
Number of radios per 1,000 people 402 (1999 estimate)
Number of telephones per 1,000 people 20 (2001)
Number of televisions per 1,000 people 36 (2000 estimate)
Number of Internet hosts per 10,000 people 2.6 (2001)
Daily newspaper circulation per 1,000 people 18 (1996)
Number of motor vehicles per 1,000 people 32 (1997)
Paved road as a share of total roads 47 percent (1999)
Basic Facts and People sections
Area data are from the statistical bureaus of individual countries. Population, population growth rate, and population projections are from the United States Census Bureau, International Programs Center, International Data Base (IDB) (www.census.gov). Urban and rural population data are from the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations (UN), FAOSTAT database (www.fao.org). Largest cities population data and political divisions data are from the statistical bureaus of individual countries. Ethnic divisions and religion data are largely from the latest Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) World Factbook and from various country censuses and reports. Language data are largely from the Ethnologue, Languages of the World, Summer Institute of Linguistics International (www.sil.org).
Health and Education section
Life expectancy and infant mortality data are from the United States Census Bureau, International Programs Center, International database (IDB) (www.census.gov). Population per physician and population per hospital bed data are from the World Health Organization (WHO) (www.who.int). Education data are from the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) database (www.unesco.org).
Government section
Government, independence, legislature, constitution, highest court, and voting qualifications data are largely from various government Web sites, the latest Europa World Yearbook, and the latest Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) World Factbook. The armed forces data is from Military Balance.
Economy section
Gross domestic product (GDP), GDP per capita, GDP by economic sectors, employment, and national budget data are from the World Bank database (www.worldbank.org). Monetary unit, agriculture, mining, manufacturing, exports, imports, and major trade partner information is from the latest Europa World Yearbook and various International Monetary Fund (IMF) publications.
Energy, Communication, and Transportation section
Electricity information is from the Energy Information Administration (EIA) database (www.eia.doe.gov). Radio, telephone, television, and newspaper information is from the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) database (www.unesco.org). Internet hosts, motor vehicles, and road data are from the World Bank database (www.worldbank.org).
Figures may not total 100 percent due to rounding.